Lee Frelich Publications


Jõgiste, K, L.E. Frelich, D. Laarmann, E. Baders, J. Donis, A. Jansons, A. Kangur, H. Korjus, K. Köster, J. Kusmin, T. Kuuluvainen, V. Marozas, M. Metslaid, S. Metslaid, O. Polyachenko, A. Poska, S. Rebane, J. Stanturf, and F. Vodde. 2018. Imprints of management history on hemiboreal forest ecosystems in the Baltic States. Ecosphere 9(11): article e02503. 

Sommerfeld, A., C. Senf, B. Buma, A. D'Amato, T. Després, I. Díaz-Hormazábal, S. Fraver, L.E. Frelich, Á.G. Gutiérrez, S.J. Hart, B.J. Harvey, H.S. He, T. Hlásny, A. Holz, T. Kitzberger, D. Kulakowski, D. Lindenmayer, A.S. Mori, J. Müller, J. Paritsis, G.L.W. Perry, S.L. Stephens, M. Svoboda, M.G. Turner, T.T. Veblen, R. Seidl. 2018. Patterns and drivers of recent disturbances across the temperate forest biome. Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06788-9.

Looney, C.E., A.W. D’Amato, S. Fraver, B.J. Palik, and L.E. Frelich. 2018. Interspecific competition limits the realized niche of Fraxinus nigra along a waterlogging gradient.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48: 1292-1301. 

Patton, S., M.B. Russell, M.A. Windmuller-Campione, and L.E. Frelich. 2018. Quantifying impacts of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) browse using forest inventory and socio-environmental datasets. PLoS ONE, 13(8): e0201334. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201334

Frelich, L.E. and Ryan Toot. 2018. Accelarated migration of bur oak ecotypes for climate resilience. Legislative Citizens Commission on Minnesota Resources, Final Report, July 2018.

Frelich, L.E., J.A. Stanturf, Kristi Parro, Endijs Baders, Kalev Jõgiste. 2018. Chapter 8: Natural disturbances and forest management: interacting patterns on the landscape. Pages 221-248 In, Perera, A.H., Peterson, U., Pastur, G., Iverson, L.R., Editors, Ecosystem services from forest landscapesBroadscale considerations. New York: Springer 

Webster, C.R., Y.L. Dickinson, J. I. Burton, L.E. Frelich, M.A. Jenkins, C.C. Kern, P. Raymond, M.R. Saunders, M.B. Walters, and J.L. Willis. 2018. Promoting and maintaining diversity in contemporary hardwood forests: confronting contemporary drivers of change and the loss of ecological memory. Forest Ecology and Management (Tamm Review) 421: 98-108 

Dyderski, M.K., S. Paz, L.E. Frelich, and A.M. Jagodzinski. 2018. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions? Global Change Biology, 24: 1150-1163 


Frelich, L.E., D.W. Peterson and P.B. Reich. 2017. The changing role of fire in mediating the relationships among oaks, grasslands, mesic temperate forests and boreal forests in the Lake States. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 36(5): 421-432. 

Frelich, L.E.  2017. Wildland Fire: understanding and maintaining an ecological baseline. Current Forestry Reports, (online), doi:10.1007/s40725-017-0062-3. 

Jõgiste, K., H. Korjus, J.A. Stanturf, L.E. Frelich, E. Baders, J. Donis, A. Jansons, A. Kangur, K. Köster, D. Laarmann, T. Maaten, V. Marozas, M. Metslaid, K. Nigul, O. Polyahcenko, T. Randveer, and F. Vodde. 2017. Hemi-boreal forest: natural disturbances and the importance of ecosystem legacies to management. Ecosphere 8(2): article e01706. 

Craven, D., M. Thakur, E. Cameron, L.E. Frelich, R. Beausejour, R. Blair, B. Blossey, J. Burtis, A. Choi, A. Davalos, T. Fahey, N. Fisichelli, K. Gibson, I.T. Handa, K. Hopfenspberger, S. Loss, V. Nuzzo, J. Maerz, T. Sackett, B. Scharenbroch, S. Smith, M. Vellend, L. Umek, and N. Eisenhauer. 2017. The unseen invaders: introduced earthworms as drivers of change in plant communities in North American forests (a meta-analysis). Global Change Biology 23: 1065-1074. 


Frelich, L.E. 2016. “Temperate Coniferous Forests” Oxford Bibliographies in Ecology. Ed. David Gibson. New York: Oxford University Press, October 2016. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199830060/obo-9780199830060-0162.xml?rskey=bkX55P&result=67.

Frelich, L.E. 2016. Forest dynamics. F1000 Research 2016, 5(F1000 Faculty Reviews: 183 DOI 10.12688/f1000research.7412.1). 

Johnstone, J.F, C.D. Allen, J.F. Franklin, L.E. Frelich, B.J. Harvey, P.E. Higuera, M.C. Mack, R.K. Meentemeyer, M.R. Metz, G.L.W. Perry, T. Schoennagel, and M.G. Turner. 2016. Changing disturbance regimes, ecological memory and forest resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14: 369-378. 


Fisichelli, N.A., A. Stefanski, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2015. Temperature and leaf nitrogen affect performance of plant species at range overlap. Ecosphere 6(10).

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich and D.W. Peterson. 2015. Fire in Upper Midwestern Oak Forest Ecosystems: An Oak Restoration and Management Handbook. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-914. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Frelich, L.E., R. Montgomery, and J. Oleksyn. 2015. Northern Temperate Forest. Chapter 2. In, K. Peh, R. Corlett and Y. Bergeron, Editors. Handbook of Forest Ecology, Routledge Press.

Montgomery, R. and L.E. Frelich. 2015. Forest succession and gap dynamics. Chapter 11. In, K. Peh, R. Corlett and Y. Bergeron, Editors. Handbook of Forest Ecology, Routledge Press.

Roth, A.M., T.J.S. Whitfeld, A.G. Lodge, N. Eisenhauer, L.E. Frelich and P.B. Reich. 2015. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). Oecologia 178:219-230. [doi 10.1007/s00442-014-3175-4]

Vodde, F., K. Jogiste, J. Engelhart, L.E. Frelich, W.K. Moser, A. Sims, M. Metslaid. 2015. Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade. Forest Ecology and Management 348: 174-185. 


Fisichelli, N.A., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2014. Tree regeneration patterns across temperate-boreal ecotones mediated by temperature interactions. Ecography 37:152-161. [doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00197.x]

Frelich, L.E. 2014. How to become a forest ecologist in only 40 years. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 95: 207-210.

Frelich, L.E. 2014. Understanding our changing forests. Minnesota 113(4):24-25.

Schlaghamersky, J., N. Eisenhauer, and L.E Frelich. 2014. Earthworm invasion alters enchytraied community composition and individual biomass in northern hardwood forests of North America. Applied Soil Ecology 83:159-169.

Whitfeld, T.J.S., A.M. Roth, A.G. Lodge, N. Eisenhauer, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2014. Resident plant diversity and introduced earthworms have contrasting effects on the success of invasive plants. Biological Invasions 16:2181-2193.


Danz, N.P., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, and G.J. Niemi. 2013. Abrupt prairie-forest transition across a smooth climate gradient in presettlement Minnesota, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 24:1129-1140. [doi: 10.1111/jvs.12028]

Fisichelli, N.A., L.E. Frelich and P.B. Reich. 2013. Climate and interrelated tree regeneration drivers in mixed temperate-boreal forests. Landscape Ecology 28:149-159. [doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9827-z]

Fisichelli, N.A., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, and N. Eisenhauer. 2013. Linking direct and indirect pathways mediating earthworms, deer, and understory composition in Great Lakes forests. Biological Invasions 15:1057-1066. [doi: 10.1007/s10530-012-0350-6]

Frelich, L.E. 2013. Boreal Biome. In Oxford Bibliographies in Ecology, ed. David Gibson. New York: Oxford University Press.

Loss, S.R., R. Hueffmeier, C.M. Hale, G.E. Host, G. Sjerven, and L.E. Frelich. 2013. Earthworm invasions in northern hardwoods forests; a rapid assessment method. Natural Areas Journal 33:500-509. [doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3375/043.033.0103 ]


Eisenhauer, N., N.A. Fisichelli, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2012. Interactive effects of global warming and 'global worming' on the germination of native and exotic herbaceous plant species. Oikos 121:1121-1133. [doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19807.x]

Fisichelli, N.A., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2012. Sapling growth responses to warmer temperatures 'cooled' by browse pressure. Global Change Biology 18:3455-3463. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02785.x]    

Frelich, L.E., A.R. Ek, J.N. Zobel, and K.M. Paige. 2012. Forest wildlife habitat description and data for Minnesota species. Staff Paper Series No. 219. St. Paul, MN: Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota.

Frelich, L.E., R.O. Peterson, M. Dovciak, P.B. Reich, J.A. Vucetich, and N. Eisenhauer. 2012. Trophic cascades, invasive species, and body-size hierarchies interactively modulate climate change responses of ecotonal temperate-boreal forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society-B 367:2955-2961. [doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0235]

Frelich, L.E., and E.J. Ostuno. 2012. Estimating wind speeds of convective storms from tree damage. Electronic Journal of Severe Storms Meteorology 7(9):1-19.

Holdsworth, A.R., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2012. Leaf litter disappearance in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: role of tree species and the chemistry and diversity of litter. Ecosystems 15:913-926. [doi: 10.1007/s10021-012-9554-y]

Reich, P.B., L.E. Frelich, R. Voldseth, P. Bakken, and C. Adair. 2012. Understory diversity in boreal forests is regulated by productivity and its indirect impacts on resource availability and heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology 100:539-545. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01922.x]

Schlaghamersky, J., and L.E. Frelich. 2012. First records of Parergodrilus heideri (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from North America. Zootaxa 3498:81-86.


Bragg, D.C., L.E. Frelich, R.T. Leverett, W. Blozan, and D.J. Luthringer. 2011. The sine method: an alternative height measurement technique. USDA Forest Service Research Note SRS-22.

Carlson, D.J., P.B. Reich, and L.E. Frelich. 2011. Fine-scale heterogeneity in overstory composition contributes to heterogeneity of wildfire severity in southern boreal forest. Journal of Forest Research 16:203-214. [doi: 10.1007/s10310-011-0251-z]

Danz, N.P., P.B. Reich, L.E. Frelich, and G.J. Niemi. 2011. Vegetation controls vary across space and spatial scale in a historic grassland-forest biome boundary. Ecography 34:402-414. [doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06561.x]

Eisenhauer, N., J. Schlaghamersky, P. B. Reich, and L.E. Frelich. 2011. The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial functions. Biological Invasions 13:2191-2196. [doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-0043-4]

Li, G. ,Y. Liu, L.E. Frelich, and S. Sun. 2011. Experimental warming induces degradation of a Tibetan alpine meadow through trophic interactions. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:659-667. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365.2664.2011.01965.x]

Moen, R., R.A. Peterson, S. Windels, L.E. Frelich, D.R. Becker, and M. Johnson. 2011. Minnesota moose status: progress on Moose Advisory Committee recommendations. NRRI Technical Report NRRI/TR 2011-41.

Salk, T.T., L.E. Frelich, S.Sugita, R. Calcote, J.B. Ferrari, and R. Montgomery. 2011. Poor recruitment is changing the structure and species composition of an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management 261:1998-2006. [doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.02.026]

Sun, S., and L.E. Frelich. 2011. Flowering phenology and height growth pattern are associated with maximum plant height, relative growth rate and stem tissue mass density in herbaceous grassland species. Journal of Ecology 99:991-1000. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01830.x]


Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 2010. Will environmental changes reinforce the impact of global warming on the prairie-forest border of central North America? Frontiers in Ecology and Environment [doi: 10.1890/080191].

Heimpel, G.E., L.E. Frelich, D.A. Landis, K.R. Hopper, K. Hoelmer, Z. Sezen, M.K. Asplen, and K. Wu. 2010. European buckthorn and Asian soybean aphid as part of an extensive invasional meltdown in North America. Biological Invasions 12:2913-2931.

Larson, E., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, C.M. Hale, and K. Kipfmueller. 2010. Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern hardwood forests. Biological Invasions 12:1053-1066.

McGraw, A.M., R. Moen, G. Wilson, A. Edwards, R. Peterson, L. Cornicelli, M. Schrage, L. Frelich, M.Lenarz, and D. Becker. 2010. An Advisory committee process to plan moose management in Minnesota. ALCES 46:189-200.

Rich, R.L., L. Frelich, P.B. Reich, and M.E. Bauer. 2010. Detecting wind disturbance severity and canopy heterogeneity in boreal forest by coupling high-spatial resolution satellite imagery and field data. Remote Sensing of Environment 114:299-308.


Frelich, L.E. 2009. Book review of "The vanishing present: Wisconsin's changing lands, water, and wildlife," eds. D.M. Waller and T.P. Rooney. University of Chicago Press. The Quarterly Review of Biology 84:293.

Burton, J.I., L.E. Frelich, and E.K. Zenner. 2009. Patterns of plant community structure within and among primary and second-growth northern hardwood forest stands. Forest Ecology and Management 258:2556-2568.

Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 2009. Wilderness conservation in an era of global warming and invasive species: a case study from Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Natural Areas Journal 29:385-393.

Galatowitsch, S., L.E. Frelich, and L. Phillips-Mao. 2009. Regional climate change adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in a midcontinental region of North America. Biological Conservation 142:2012-2022.

Galatowitsch, S., L.E. Frelich, and L. Phillips-Mao. 2009. Coping with climate change: conservation planning in Minnesota. CURA Reporter 39:3-10. Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.


Frelich, L.E. 2008. Bicknell's geranium. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer 71(418):72-73.

Holdsworth, A., P.B. Reich, and L.E. Frelich.2008. Litter decomposition in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: Role of invasion degree and litter chemistry. Ecoscience 15:536-544.

Benedict, M.A., and L.E. Frelich. 2008. Site factors and black ash tree-ring growth in northern Minnesota. Forest Ecology and Management 255:3489-3493.

Burton, J.I., L.E. Frelich, and E.K. Zenner. 2008. Frost crack incidence in northern hardwood forests of the southern boreal- north temperate transition zone. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25:133-138.

Hale, C. M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, and J. Pastor. 2008. Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability, and native plants: a mesocosm study. Oecologia 155:509-518.

Peck, J.E., H.M. Hoganson, P.S. Muir, A.R. Ek, and L.E. Frelich. 2008. Using Inventory Projections to evaluate management options for the nontimber forest product of epiphytic moss. Forest Science 54:185-194.

Peck, J.E., and L.E. Frelich. 2008. Moss harvest truncates the successional development of epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications 18:146-158.


Rich, R.L., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2007. Wind-throw mortality in the southern boreal forest: effects of species, diameter and stand age. Journal of Ecology 95:1261-1273.

Holdsworth, A.R., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2007. Effects of earthworm invasion on plant species richnes in northern hardwood forests. Conservation Biology 21:997-1008.

Holdsworth, A.R., P.B. Reich, and L.E. Frelich. 2007. Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests. Ecological Applications 17:1666-1677.


Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2006. Changes in cold-temperate forest understory plant communities in response to invasion by European earthworms. Ecology 87:1637-1649.

Frelich, L.E., C.M. Hale, S. Scheu, A.Holdsworth, L.Heneghan, P.J. Bohlen, and P.B. Reich. 2006. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. Biological Invasions 8:1235-1245.

Frelich, L.E. et al. 2006. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. In Biological invasions belowground: earthworms as invasive species, ed. P.F. Hendrix, 35-45. The Netherlands: Springer.


Frelich, L.E., M.W. Cornett, and M.A. White. 2005. Controls and reference conditions in forestry: The role of old growth and retrospective studies. Journal of Forestry 103:339-344.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2005. Effects of European earthworm invasion on soil characteristics in northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Ecosystems 8:911-927.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2005. Exotic European earthworm invasion dynamics in northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Ecological Applications 15:848-860.

Dovicak, M., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2005. Pathways in old field succession to white pine: seed rain, shade and climate effects. Ecological Monographs 75:363-378.

Kilgore, M.A, A.R. Ek, K.A. Buhr, L.E. Frelich, J.M. Hanowski, C.M. Hibbard, A.O. Finley, L.C. Rathbun, N.P. Danz, J.W. Lind, and G.J. Niemi. 2005. Minnesota timber harvesting GEIS: An assessment of the first 10 years. Staff Paper Series No. 182. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Department of Forest Resources.


Weyenberg, S.A, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2004. Logging versus fire: how does disturbance type influence the abundance of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) regeneration? Silva Fennica 38:179-194.

Mehta, S., L.E. Frelich, M.T. Jones, and J. Manolis. 2004. Examining the effects of alternative management strategies on landscape-scale forest patterns in northeastern Minnesota using LANDIS. Ecological Modelling 180:73-87.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2004. Allometric equations for estimation of ash-free dry mass from length measurements for selected European earthworm species (Lumbricidae) in the western Great Lakes region. American Midland Naturalist 151(1):179-185.


Dovciak, M., P.B. Reich, and L.E. Frelich. 2003. Seed rain, safe sites, competing vegetation, and soil resources spatially structure white pine regeneration and recruitment. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:1892-1904.

Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 2003. Perspectives on development of definitions and values related to old-growth forests. Environmental Reviews 11:S9-S22.

Frelich, L.E., J-L. Machado, and P.B. Reich. 2003. Fine-scale environmental variation and structure of understorey plant communities in two old-growth pine forests. Journal of Ecology 91:283-293.


Frelich, L.E. 2002. Forest dynamics and disturbance regimes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 2002. Dynamics of old-growth oak forests. In The ecology and management of oaks for wildlife, eds., W.J. McShea and W.H. Healy, 113-126. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Freidman, S.K., P.B. Reich, and L.E. Frelich. 2001. Multiple scale composition and spatial patterns of the northeastern Minnesota presettlement forest. Journal of Ecology 89:538-554.

Frelich, L.E. and P.B. Reich. 2001. Fire ecology, Forest, boreal, and Forest, temperate (3 articles). Macmillan Reference USA, Biology for Students.

Reich, P.B., P.Bakken, D.Carlson, L.E. Frelich, S.K. Friedman, and D. Grigal. 2001. Influence of logging and fire on boreal forest biodiversity and productivity. Ecology 82:2731-2748.

Reich, P.B., and L.E. Frelich. 2001. Temperate deciduous forests. Encyclopedia of Global Change. Macmillan Reference USA, Biology for Students.

Dovciak, M., L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2001. Discordance in spatial patterns of white pine (Pinus strobus) size-classes in a patchy near-boreal forest. Journal of Ecology 89:280-291.

Cornett, M.W., K.J. Puettmann, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. 2001. Comparing the importance of seedbed and canopy type in the restoration of upland Thuja occidentalis forests of northeastern Minnesota. Restoration Ecology 9:386-396.

Superior National Forest, USDA, Forest Service. 2001. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Fuel Treatments. (Frelich wrote much of the Vegetation section of the EIS as a subcontractor with Foster-Wheeler Environmental, Inc.)


Cornett, M.W., L.E. Frelich, K.J. Puettmann, and L.E. Frelich. 2000. Conservation implications of browsing by Odcoileus virginianus in remnant upland Thuja occidentalis forests. Biological Conservation 93:359-369.

Cornett, M.W., P.B. Reich, K.J. Puettmann, and L.E. Frelich. 2000. Seedbed and moisture availability determine safe sites for early Thuja occidentalis (Cupressaceae) regeneration. American Journal of Botany 87:1807-1814.

Frelich, L.E. 2000. A preliminary ecological assessment of the July 4th blowdown in the BWCAW. A background paper for the USDA Forest Service, Superior National Forest.


Frelich, L.E. 1999. Range of variability in forest structure for the Northern Superior Uplands. A background paper for the forest planning process for Superior National Forest, Minnesota.

Frelich, L.E. 1999. Natural variability of forested ecosystems in northern Minnesota. A background paper for the forest planning process for Superior and Chippewa National Forests, Minnesota.

Frelich, L.E., and K.Puettmann. 1999. Restoration ecology. In Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems, ed. M.L. Hunter, Jr., 498-524. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 1999. Neighborhood effects, disturbance severity and community stability in forests. Ecosystems 2:151-166.

Romme, W., W. Everham, L.E. Frelich, M. Moritz, and R. Sparks. 1999. Are large infrequent disturbances qualitatively different from small frequent disturbances? Ecosystems 1:524-534.


Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 1998. Disturbance severity and threshold responses in the boreal forest. Conservation Ecology [aka Ecology and Society, online]2(2):7.

Augustine, D., L.E. Frelich, and P.A. Jordan. 1998. Evidence for development of alternative communities in an ungulate grazing system. Ecological Applications 8:1260-1269.

Augustine, D., and L.E. Frelich. 1998. White-tailed deer impacts on populations of an understory forb in fragmented deciduous forests. Conservation Biology 12:995-1004.

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich, S. Sugita, M.B. Davis, and S.K. Friedman. 1998. Neighborhood effects in forests: Implications for within stand patch structure and management. Journal of Ecology 86: 149-162.

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1998. A structural alternative to chronosequence analysis for uneven-aged northern hardwood forests. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 6:347-366.


Frelich, L.E. 1996. Book review of "The Ecology of Fire," by R.J. Whelan. Ecoscience 3:244-245.

Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 1996. Old growth in the Great Lakes Region. In Eastern Old Growth, ed. M.B. Davis, 11:144-160. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Tester, J., A. Starfield, and L.E. Frelich. 1996. Modeling for ecosystem management in Minnesota pine forests. Biological Conservation 80:313-324.

White Pine Regeneration Strategies Work Group. 1996. Minnesota's White Pine--Now and for the Future. Report to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (written by a group of 14, including L.E. Frelich).


Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 1995. Neighborhood effects, disturbance, and succession in forests of the Western Great Lakes Region. Ecoscience 2:148-158.

Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. 1995. Spatial patterns and succession in a Minnesota southern-boreal forest. Ecological Monographs 65:325-346.

Frelich, L.E. 1995. Old forest in the Lake States today and before European settlement. Natural Areas Journal 15:157-167.


Davis, M.B., S. Sugita, R.R. Calcote, J.B. Ferrari, and L.E. Frelich (Peer reviewed). 1994. Historical development of alternate communities in a hemlock-hardwood forest in Michigan, USA. In Large-scale Ecology and Conservation Biology, eds., R. May, N. Webb, and P. Edwards, 19-39. Oxford: Blackwell.

Frelich, L.E., and L.J. Graumlich. 1994. Age class distribution and spatial patterns in an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:1939-1947.

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1994. Generic Environmental Impact Statement study on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. 500+ pages. (L.E. Frelich co-authored the document as part of the four-member GEIS core group. The document was peer reviewed).

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1994. Disturbance and eastern old growth. Journal of Forestry 92:33-38.


Frelich, L.E. 1993. Fire policy in the BWCAW: discussion of some ecological issues. BWCA Wilderness News, Autumn:6-7.

Frelich, L.E., R.R. Calcote, M.B. Davis, and J. Pastor. 1993. Patch formation and maintenance in an old growth hemlock-hardwood forest. Ecology 74:513-527.


Frelich, L.E. 1992. Predicting dimensional relationships for Twin Cities shade trees. Miscellaneous publication of the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources.

Frelich, L.E. 1992. The relationship of natural disturbances to white pine stand development. In White Pine Symposium Proceedings: History, Ecology, Policy and Management, eds., R.A. Stine and M.J. Baughman, 27-37. St Paul, MN: Department of Forest Resources, College of Natural Resources and Minnesota Extension Service.

Davis, M.B., S. Sugita, R.R. Calcote, and L.E. Frelich. 1992. Effects of invasion by Tsuga canadensis on a North American forest ecosystem. In Responses of forest ecosystems to environmental changes, eds., A. Teller, P. Mathy, and J.N.R. Jeffers, 34-44. New York: Elsevier Applied Science.

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1992a. Forest Wildlife: A technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. (L.E. Frelich provided technical editing and co-authored the document as part of a five-member study team, document was peer reviewed).

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1992b. Biodiversity: A technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. (L.E. Frelich authored the document which was peer reviewed).

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting, Inc. 1992c. Global Atmospheric Change: A technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. (L.E. Frelich authored the document).

Lorimer, C.G., L.E. Frelich, and E.V. Nordheim. 1992. Forest-tree growth rates and probability of gap origin--a reply to Clark. Ecology 73:1124-1128.


Frelich, L.E., and C.G. Lorimer. 1991. A simulation of landscape dynamics in old-growth northern hardwood forests. Journal of Ecology 79:223-233.

Frelich, L.E., and C.G. Lorimer. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the Upper Great Lakes Region. Ecological Monographs 61:145-164.

Phillips, M., ed. 1991. Carbon dioxide budgets in Minnesota and recommendations on reducing net emissions with trees. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. (L.E. Frelich contributed about 12 pages of material on carbon pools of Minnesota and carbon fixation over time by shade trees and forest plantation.)


Bockheim, J.G., J.E. Leide, and L.E. Frelich. 1989. Red pine growth and chemical composition of foliage and forest floors across a precipitation-chemistry gradient in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:1543-1549.

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1989. A methodology for estimating canopy disturbance frequency and intensity in dense temperate forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:651-663.

Frelich, L.E., J.G. Bockheim, and J.E. Leide. 1989. Historical trends in tree-ring growth and chemistry across an air-quality gradient in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:113-121.

Lorimer, C.G., L.E. Frelich, and E.V. Nordheim. 1988. Estimating gap origin probabilities for canopy trees. Ecology 69:778-785.

Frelich, L.E., and G.L. Martin. 1988. Effects of crown expansion into gaps on evaluation of disturbance intensity in northern hardwood forests. Forest Science 34:530-536.

Frelich, L.E., and C.G. Lorimer. 1985. Current and predicted long-term effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA. Biological Conservation 34:99-120.

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1984. A simulation of equilibrium diameter distributions of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club 111:193-199.

Frelich, L.E. 1979. Vascular plants of Newport State Park, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Research Report 100.